by Andreas Hoffmann and Holger Zemanek* Over the last two years Carmen Reinhart and Belen Sbrancia have published a series of papers on financial repression and its historical role in financing government debt. They show that throughout the Bretton Woods period governments in many advanced economies repressed financial markets to liquidate the high levels of debt that … Continue reading Government Revenues from Low-Interest Rate Policies
by Andreas Hoffmann* The European Central Bank (ECB) and the Fed differ in many aspects. First, the ECB is considered to be more hawkish on fighting inflationary tendencies. Its primary goal is price stability and it has continued to watch money growth. Output gaps below full-employment are only considered secondary as instrument to forecast inflation. … Continue reading The European Central Bank Turns into the Fed?
by Andreas Hoffmann* Entering the Eurozone, Greece handed over monetary policy to the European Central Bank and introduced the euro. In a formerly unstable economy, without the danger of depreciation, the risk premium on Greek interest rates shrank to less than half a percent above that of Germany. This brought about convergence of the Greek … Continue reading Greece as a Danger to Euro Stability
by Andreas Hoffmann and Gunther Schnabl* With central bank balance sheets and government debt levels exploding, discomfort about future inflation arises. A discussion about the appropriate exit strategy from low-interest rate policies has started. The standpoints of central banks are different. The ECB seems more decisively in favour of an early exit. The Federal Reserve … Continue reading Four Reasons Why The EXIT Will Fail